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Artykuły » Ciekawostki hist » Sensacja techniczna sprzed 4750 lat
Sensacja techniczna sprzed 4750 lat
PIERWSZA WIELKA BUDOWLA KAMIENNA

24 kilometry na południowy zachód od centrum Kairu, na pustynnym płaskowyżu opodal zachodniego brzegu Nilu, w Sakka-ra, leży starożytne cmentarzysko prawdaw-nej stolicy Egiptu — Memfisu. W miejscu tym grzebano już umarłych w końcu IV tysiąclecia p.n.e., w czasach kiedy pierwsza dynastia faraonów połączyła pod swym berłem w jedno państwo jego odrębne przedtem części — Egipt Dolny i Egipt Górny. W Sakkara znajdują się liczne grobowce — niektóre z nich to prawdziwe dzieła sztuki. Są tam również ruiny świątyń oraz Serapeum, czyli podziemny cmentarz świętych byków — Apisów. Wszystkie te zabytki przyćmiewa jednak wspaniała Piramida Schodkowa, złożona z 6 potężnych stopni, oraz związane z nią budowle pomocnicze.

Images: komplex.jpgPiramidę Schodkową otaczał niegdyś wysoki na ok. 10 m mur kamienny, tworzący prostokąt o wymiarach w przybliżeniu 545 na 277 m. Spośród 14 znajdujących się w nim monumentalnych bram, 13 było pozornych, a tylko jedna prowadziła do wewnątrz, na obszar kultowy. Spora część tego terenu zabudowana była świątyniami, | kolumnadami i innymi ozdobnymi budowlami kultowymi. Przeznaczenia niektórych z nich można się tylko domyślać. Wszystkie one tworzyły tzw. kompleks piramidy będącej miejscem obrzędów związanych z pogrzebem, a następnie kultem pośmiertnym pochowanego w niej władcy.

Piramida schodkowa była grobowcem faraona Dżesera (zwanego też Dżoserem albo Zoserem), pierwszego z władców III dynastii, panującego ok. 2800 r. p.n.e. Stanowiła ona wówczas nie lada nowość, różniąc się swym kształtem, ogromem i jakością budulca od grobowców królów z poprzednich dynastii. Do czasów Dżesera bowiem władców Egiptu grzebano w podziemnych komorach, ponad którymi wznoszono z wysuszonej na słońcu cegły mulo-wej sporych rozmiarów prostopadłościany, o lekko nachylonych (z uwagi na budulec) bocznych ścianach. Archeologowie nazywają owe grobowce „mastabami" z powodu ich wielkiego podobieństwa do często spotykanych na wsi egipskiej ceglanych przy-murków o tej właśnie nazwie, stawianych na zewnątrz domów. Oczywiście pod każdą mastabą-grobowcem znajdowały się, obok komory grobowej, również inne pomieszczenia wypełnione rytualnymi przedmiotami oraz wszelkiego rodzaju skarbami stanowiącymi wyposażenie pośmiertne władcy.

Faraon Dżeser zlecił zbudowanie swojego grobowca w Sakkara swemu niezwykle utalentowanemu ulubieńcowi — Imhotepo-wi.Images: posarzek.jpg Jest to pierwszy w dziejach inżynier znany nam z imienia. Imhotep był wedle starożytnej tradycji, człowiekiem wszechstronnie uzdolnionym. Byl mędrcem i doradcą króla w ważnych sprawach państwowych, a nawet czarodziejem, piastował wiele najwyższych urzędów, był wielkim kapłanem w Heliopolis, nade wszystko zaś zasłynął jako nadzwyczaj biegły lekarz. Byl czczony po śmierci jako cudotwórca-uzdrowiciel, a na całym obszarze Egiptu znajdowały się jego świątynie, do których tłumnie ściągali zewsząd chorzy w nadziei na uzdrowienie. Grecy utożsamiali go następnie ze swym bogiem medycyny Asklepiosem.

Nie wiemy oczywiście, w jakim stopniu legenda o Imhotepie odpowiada rzeczywistości. Jednego tylko możemy być pewni, a mianowicie tego, iż tradycja nie przesadziła, jeśli chodzi o jego talent architektoniczny. Z tego, co się zachowało do dziś z kompleksu grobowego Dżesera w Sak-kara, widać, że Piramida Schodkowa oraz jej budowle pomocnicze stanowiły niegdyś znakomicie skomponowaną imponującą całość. Wszystkie je zbudowano z pięknego, białego wapienia. Jest to pierwszy w dziejach budownictwa przykład użycia kamie-nia na tak wielką skalę. Przedtem stosowano go wprawdzie, ale rzadko i bardzo oszczędnie. Piramida Schodkowa oraz kompleks otaczających ją budowli w całości wymurowane z wapienia, musiały stanowić wówczas sensację nie lada jako pionierska nowość. Nic więc dziwnego, że starożytna tradycja przypisuje Imhotepowi również obok innych zasług, wynalezienie murarstwa z kamienia.

Images: przekroj.jpgBudowę grobowca Dżesera rozpoczęto od wydrążenia podziemi  wykuto w skalnym podłożu głęboki na 28 m szyb o przekroju kwadratowym 7 \ 7 m. Na dnie tego szybu zbudowano z granitowych bloków komorę grobową, do której prowadziło wejście przez otwór w sklepieniu. Po złożeniu faraona do grobu, otwór ten przykryto blokiem granitowym ważącym ponad 3 tony. Wokół komory grobowej wydrążono cztery korytarze oraz długi na przeszło 20 m chodnik wiodący w kierunku północnym. Złożono tam pośmiertne wyposażenie władcy.Nad podziemiami Imhotep wzniósł początkowo grobowiec w kształcie mastaby wysokiej na 8 m, o planie kwadratowym 63x63 m. Od mastab poprzednich faraonów różniła się ona tylko budulcem — zamiast z cegły mułowej wykonano ją z wapiennych bloków. Następnie budowniczy powiększył ją i nadał jej kształt prostokąta

0. wymiarach ok. 75 x 66 m — przykrywając nią również wyloty 11 szybów wiodących do komór grobowych najbliższej rodziny faraona. Na tej mastabie ustawił Imhotep trzy coraz mniejsze tworząc w ten sposób schodkowy grobowiec nowego typu. Nadal jednak niezadowolony ze swego dzieła architekt powiększył je znacznie w planie

1. dodał jeszcze dwa stopnie-mastaby. Ostatecznie grobowiec przybrał kształt piramidy złożonej z sześciu stopni, wysokiej na około 60 m. Podstawa jej jest prostokątem o wymiarach 140 na 118 m.

Images: piramida schodkowa.jpgTak powstała pierwsza piramida, a zarazem pierwsza wielka budowla wzniesiona z kamienia. Nie wiadomo, w jaki sposób i dlaczego dokonało się przejście od piramidy schodkowej do piramidy właściwej mającej kształt ostrosłupa. Prawdopodobnie, któryś z następnych nowatorów postanowił zapełnić przestrzenie pomiędzy stopniami. Nie wiadomo zresztą również, czy zmiany kształtu królewskich grobowców nie były związane ze zwycięstwem jakiegoś kultu religijnego nad innym wcześniejszym. Takim ogniwem pośrednim wydaje się piramida w Medum, należąca zapewne do jednego z następców Dżesera, faraona Huni — początkowo była ona ośmiostopniową piramidą schodkową, a ostateczna jej postać miała kształt ostrosłupa wysokości 92 m o kwadratowej podstawie 144x144 m. Panowanie następnej, IV dynastii, to okres budowy największych i najwspanialszych piramid, z których najsłynniejsze wzniesiono w Giza opodal dzisiejszego Kairu. Wszystkie te ogromne budowle wykonane zostały niezwykle prostymi środkami.Zarówno wyłamywanie i obróbka kamiennych bloków, jak ich transport, zwłaszcza pionowy, stanowiły wówczas niezwykle żmudne zadania. Kamienne elementy wciągano, aby umieścić je na odpowiednim miejscu w konstrukcji, po rampach ziemnych, które pod koniec budowy pokrywały niemal całą piramidę. Wiemy o tym na podstawie badań nie dokończonych przez starożytnych Egipcjan obiektów tego rodzaju. Budowniczowie piramid nie mieli jeszcze do dyspozycji żurawi ani innych „machin" do podnoszenia kamieni, wbrew temu, co przypuszczali niektórzy dużo późniejsi autorzy klasyczni, np. grecki historyk z V w. p.n.e. — Herodot. Niełatwe problemy inżynierskie związane z budową piramid (które nawet jeszcze dziś sprawiałyby sporo kłopotu) zostały rozwiązane przez ich twórców przede wszystkim dzięki znakomitej organizacji pracy i zaopatrzenia.

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